The subject of fats still causes massive confusion. People are unsure whether to avoid or include fats in their diet, and if they should include them, which ones are the right ones; and how much should they eat? And then there’s the subject of cholesterol … and what about trans fats? And soon enough, it seems like the easiest thing to do is avoid them altogether. Sound familiar?

In response to this overwhelming confusion, we’ve put together a quick summary of everything you need to know about fats and nothing else. Avoiding fats altogether can have disastrous effects on your health so instead we’ll help you navigate your way through the world of nuts, seeds and oily fish with a calm and clear head.

Ready to embrace the world of fats?

Why you need to eat fats

Fats are an absolutely crucial part of your diet, yet Western society still seems to be giving them a wide berth - supermarket shelves are piled high with zero fat yoghurts and pretend-butter packed with anything but real fat (go ahead and check the sugar content for starters!). Unfortunately, what these products don’t advertise is that fat phobia comes with a whole host of health problems, not least those related to mood and cognitive function. The brain is composed of 60% fat and this needs to be replenished through your diet. Fats also help to protect your organs from damage, act as insulation to keep you warm, help nerve cells to pass messages and can even help you to lose weight. People who are fat deficient tend to have dry, cracked skin, feel miserable and could be at higher risk of developing cognitive and cardiovascular health problems as they age. Most importantly, the right fat doesn't make you fat!

Here’s some health problems / symptoms that may be associated with a deficiency or imbalance of healthy fats:

Hair, Skin & Nails

Dry, rough skin, raised red bumps on the backs of arms (Keratinosis pilaris) Dry eyes Poor hair condition, loss of hair, dandruff Excessive thirst Skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis Premature ageing

Immune

Frequent infections, poor wound healing, inflammation in the body causing auto-immune problems

Cognitive

Poor memory, dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease Behavioural problems, hyperactivity Learning difficulties Aggression Parkinson’s Disease Schizophrenia

Hormonal

PMS Breast Pain Polycystic ovaries, endometriosis Infertility Menopausal symptoms

Mood

Anxiety, tension, depression / mood fluctuations

Inflammatory

Eczema, psoriasis, arthritis

Blood Sugar Imbalances

Weight gain, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes

Fat Soluble Vitamin Deficiencies

Vitamins A, D, E & K

Those scientific-sounding words explained!

Clearly there are some fats that you’d be best placed not to eat too much of, and there’s others that almost everyone needs to eat more of. Here’s a quick overview of all of them, where you can find them in your diet and whether or not you should be eating them. We’ve used the scientific terms since this is how you’ll see them on a food label.

Saturated fats Where do you find them? – Pasture-raised meat (beef and poultry), lard, pasture-raise dairy products (cheese, milk, cream, butter, plain yoghurt), cocoa butter (chocolate), tropical fats such as palm oil (processed foods) and extra virgin coconut oil.

Why do you need them? To provide insulation around your organs and under your skin to keep you warm and absorb shock. Saturated fats also provide energy, calories and heat.

Unsaturated & polyunsaturated fats Where do you find them? – Unheated oils such as olive oil, avocado oil, sesame seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, evening primrose oil, borage seed oil, algae, hemp seed oil, avocado, oily fish (such as wild Alaskan salmon), raw organic nuts & seeds.

Why do you need them? Unsaturated and particularly polyunsaturated fats are highly beneficial to health yet often missing from a typical Western diet. There are many different types of these fats, each having their own special function. EPA & DHA are special omega-3 polyunsaturated fats found in high amounts in wild oily fish, nuts and seeds. They are beneficial to cardiovascular health, mood, cognitive function (your brain!), learning and development, joint health and more. GLA is another type of omega-6 polyunsaturated fat found in high amounts in evening primrose, borage seed and blackcurrant seed oil – it is particularly beneficial for the skin and is often recommended for eczema sufferers. GLA is also widely used to alleviate the symptoms of PMS.

Do I need to eat them? Yes absolutely. Most people don’t eat anywhere near enough of these types of fats. See article on easy ways to increase your intake. It is also recommended that most people supplement with a high quality pure and stable fish oil supplement to ensure optimal daily intake. You can also supplement your diet with extra GLA in the form of borage seed oil. At The Perrymount we recommend Eskimo-3 as it is a very pure, clean and effective omega 3 to supplement with.

Did you know?

An easy way to tell the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats – fats that contain mostly unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature (olive oil, flaxseed oil), whereas saturated fats (butter, lard) are solid at room temperature

Trans fats Where do you find them? – Margarines, shortenings, processed foods, convenience and fast foods and even some oils. Often labelled as ‘hydrogenated’.

Why do you need them? You DON'T need trans fats in your diet. In fact they are generally considered to be harmful to your health. Trans fats are basically fats which have been chemically modified to enhance the flavour / texture of some foods. They are often used to stiffen oils – for example to make food products such as 'pretend' butter and margarine spreads. Trans fats have been linked to cardiovascular health problems and a possible involvement in some cancers. Trans fats also interfere with vital functions of essential and other highly unsaturated fats. It's also worth noting here to always read your labels! Food producers and manufacturers are very good at hiding them.

Do I need to eat them? No – absolutely not – trans fats are best avoided.

Cholesterol Where do you find it? – Cholesterol can be made in our bodies or it can come from foods. Only foods from animal sources contain cholesterol – it is found in free range or organic eggs, pasture-raised meat, pasture-raised dairy products and shellfish.

Why do you need it? Our bodies make and balance steroid hormones from cholesterol: Which are oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone and adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Cholesterol is also used to make bile acids and vitamin D and is secreted by glands into our skin to protect against dehydration and cracking. It also used as an antioxidant. 25% of your body's cholesterol is stored in your brain which is why we do actually need cholesterol in our diet!

Did you know?

Adding some beneficial unsaturated fats into your diet will actually help to increase your metabolism and support fat loss. A 2009 study in the British Journal of Nutrition found that participants who consumed the most unsaturated fatty acids had lower body mass indexes and less abdominal fat than those who consumed the least. It might sound crazy but fats really do help to burn fat! Fat also helps to keep you feeling fuller for longer which helps to reduce cravings for unhealthy foods.

Feed your body with healthy fats… Fat is essential to life and is an integral part of any healthy balanced diet. It’s the fast foods and the refined, processed stuff that gives fat a bad name. Stick to the real, honest beneficial fats found in plentiful supply in nutritious foods such as nuts, seeds, oily fish, avocado and leafy greens and you won’t go too far wrong. As well as feeding your brain and your skin, your joints, cardiovascular health, mood and much more will benefit too. In our graphic below, you might notice we use "grass-fed" or "pasture-raised" terminology a lot. This is important when it comes to our farm animals. Why? Because when cows eat a diet solely of grass, they then produce milk which has the optimum omega 3 to omega 6 ratios that our bodies can handle. Remember, it's the omega 3's that we need in our diets! We also recommend taking a good quality fish or krill oil like the one we stock at The Perrymount Clinic.

Feed your body - The Healthy Fats to include in your diet

Grass-fed, organic, lamb, beef, bison, venison; organic poultry; organic or free-range eggs; organic, free-range, lard from grass-fed cows.

Wild fatty fish: sardines, mackerel, herring, black cod, and wild salmon. Shellfish, including clams, oysters, mussels, shrimp, scallops, and crab; calamari or octopus.

Grass-fed butter and/or ghee, unsweetened nut & seed milks.

Raw, organic nuts (winners in this category are almonds, macadamia, walnuts, pecans, and Brazil nuts. Hemp, chia, pumpkin, sesame, flax. Nut and seed butters (without added sugars or bad oils).

Coconut butter; organic, virgin, cold-pressed, unrefined coconut oil; organic, extra-virgin cold-pressed olive oil; MCT oil; organic flax seed oil; organic avocado oil; walnut, pumpkin seed, pistachio and hemp oils.

Avocado, olives, cacao butter, dark chocolate.

*FOR COOKING: Always use your grass-fed lard, ghee, butter, coconut oil or avocado oil! Stop using vegetable oils - when heated, they "oxidise" which in turn causes inflammation that leads cardiovascular problems!